La mafia vista dall’Fbi

I fratelli Carlo

MAFIA MONOGRAPH

FREEDOM OF INFORMATION AND PRIVACY ACTS

J.Edgar Hoover

FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION

FIRST PART

Preface

Summary and conclusions

Summary

Conclusions

NATURE AND ORIGIN OF THE MAFIA IN SICILY

Nature

Origins

A Society of Liberation

A Secret Society of Avengers

A Natural Result of Political and Economic Forces

Background: The Island of Sicily and Its Early History

Political Characteristics the Early Italian Society

A Succession of Oppressive Foreign Rulers

The “Sicilian Vespers”, A.D. 1282

Ancestral Mafiosi

Corrupt Law Enforcement under the Bourbons

Gangs with Patriotic Coloration

The Establishment of Monopolies of Power by Certain Gangs in the Confused Period of 1800-1860

The emergence of Lawless Tradition and Group Epitomizing It

Groups Epitomizing the Lawless Tradition

THE 1860’S: MAFIA IS NAMED, ACCLAIMED, OPPOSED

Foreword

Mafia Etymology is Obscure

1863: A Play Popularized the Word “Mafia”

Mafia first Defined as “Bravado”

Mafiosi Declared “Partisans” by the Italian Authorities

Mafia Crimes Multiplied

The Mafia Spread Across Sicily

THE 1870’S: THE MAFIA RECOGNIZED AS CRIMINAL BANDS, MANY MAFIOSI DEPORTED, OTHERS FLED TO AMERICA

A New Definition Appeared

An Official Described the Mafia, 1874

The Mafia Described as Not One but a Number of Associations

The “Cosche” or Associations

Relations between Associations and within Them Often Antagonistic

No Conventional Signs or Passwords for Recognition

Crimes; Chiefly Cattle Rustling, Extortion, Kidnapping, Murder

Controlled Extortion: A Widespread Protection Racket

Attempts at Prosecution Thwarted by Lack of Evidence; Reputed Mafiosi Deported, Many Perfected New Methods, Some Fled to U. S.

THE 1880’S: POLITICAL INFLUENCE ACQUIRED BY THE MAFIA; STUDIES INDICATED THE MAFIA NOT AN ORGANIZATION

Political Influence after Extension of Voting Franchise 1882

Studies Were Made by Concerned Officials: The Mafia Was Not Considered To Be a Conventional-Type Organization

THE 1890’S: MORE ARRESTS OF MAFIOSI; MORE EMIGRATIONS OF MAFIOSI

Arrests in 1892

Emigrations

STANDARD ACCOUNTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY MAFIA

The Association Tie

Organizational Features

The Local Chief (“Capo Mafioso”)

The Local Strata

Alliances between Gangs

No Complete or Compact Association: A Pyramid of Patronage

1900-1910: THE PALIZZOLO CASE; IMMIGRATION TO THE U.S.; THE PETROSINO MURDER

The Palizzolo Case

Waves of Emigration from Sicily

The Petrosino Murder

1910-1920: MAFIA ACTIVITY CONTINUED DURING THE WAR YEARS AND INCREASED AFTER THE WAR

Mafia Activity Persisted during World War I

Post-war Crimes Reached a Striking Figure

1920’S AND 1930’S: FULL-SCALE ATTACK ON THE MAFIA BY THE ITALIAN GOVERNMENT

Mass Arrests

Mass Trials

REVELATIONS CONCERNING THE SETUP AND OPERATIONS OF THE MAFIA BETWEEN WORLD WARS I AND II.

Foreword

The Question of Probability of Data from Fascist Authorities

Suggestion That Discretion Be Used in Evaluating such Data

Summary of Features

Mafia Basically a Criminal Philosophy

The Final Degeneration of the Code of Omerta

Forms of Organization and Modus Operandi Assumed by the Mafia in the 1920’s and 1930’s

Adaptable Conspiracies

Territorial Rings

The Basic Purpose of the Territorial Ring: A “Protection” Racks

The Operation of the Territorial Mafia Ring

The Tyranny of the Few over the Many

Leadership Vested in One Chief and His Lieutenants

A Powerful Chief of a Territorial Ring May Have Been the “Head of the Mafia”

The Use of a Cover Organization

The Local Groupings

The Connection of the Local Groupings with the General Conspiracy: A Permanent Common Agreement Said To Exist

Some Alleged Proofs of the General Conspiracies: Associations; Meetings; Identification of Different Functions of Members of the Rings; Apparent Similarity of Intent; Similarity of Modus Operandi; Alleged Fixing of Responsibility for Overt Acts Appearing as Manifestations of a Conspiracy

Overt Acts: The “Caretakers”

Overt Acts: Continuous Extortion; Murders; Robberies; Other Crimes

The Findings of Cesare Mori

The Mafia Distinguished from Crime in General

Other Distinctive Features

The Importance of Family Ties

The Vendetta and Other Divisive Factors

The Vendetta

Other Divisive Factors

Infiltration of Legitimate Professions and Occupations

Mafia Terminology

Murder

THE MAFIA IN THE 1940’S

Carlo Gambino

Carlo Gambino

Opportunism during the War Years

Black-Market Operations

1944: Crime Wave; Popular Report as a Means of Identifying a Mafia Operation

Crime Wave in Sicily

Popular Report as a Means of Identifying a Mafia Operation

1945: Civil Disorders; Rise of Giuliano; Mafia Control of Criminal Activities; Mafia “Timelessness”

Civil Disorders

The Rise of Giuliano; Mafia Control of Criminal Activities

Mafia “Timelessness”

1945-49: Mafia Adaptability

Support of Expedient Causes

Political separatism

Status Quo of Economic Structure

Hydra-Headed Manifestations

Disegno separatista

Disegno separatista

THE MAFIA OF THE PRESENT

The Mafia Exist in Sicily

Summery of Recent Developments concerning the Mafia

The Mafia and the Smuggling of Narcotics

The Increasing Importance of the Industrial and Commercial Mafia and the Decline of the “Classical” Mafia

Basic Features of the Present-Day Mafia

Foreword

Definition

Associative Tie

Laws of the Mafia

Administration

Over-All Administration

Leadership and chain of Command

Family connections as a Means for Establishing and Consolidating Power

Headquarters

Local Meetings

Becoming Affiliated

Recognition of Members

Discipline

Modus Operandi

Mafia Gangs

The Feudal or Village Mafia

Rival Mafia Gangs

Illiteracy, Superstition, and Poverty aid the Mafia

Stresses in the Mafia Prevent Complete Consolidation

Mafia Groups in the Palermo Area

Three General Groupings

The Mafia of the Gardens

The Mafia of the Docks

The Mafia of the Markets

Relationships between the Mafia in Sicily and Mafiosi in the United States

The Broad Picture

Second PART

PREFACE

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

Summary

Conclusions

EXISTENCE OF MAFIA

Speculations on Existence and Nonexistence

Indications of Existence

Kefauver Committee

Federal Bureau of Narcotics

FBI Sources

Characteristics of Mafia

General

Association of Sicilian Criminal elements

Cooperation for Mutual Benefit

Secrecy and Silence

Hatred and Disrespect for Law

Corruption of Law

Intimidation and Vengeance

Murder

DISTINCTION BETWEEN MAFIA AND CRIME IN GENERAL

Enormity of Crime Today

Mafia and Organized Crime

EARLY HISTORY OF MAFIA

Transition of Mafia to United States

New Orleans Incidents

Black Hand Period of Mafia, 1900-1920

Background

New York City

Chicago

Kansas City

West Coast

Black Hand Activities of Mafia, 1920to Date

MAFIA DURING Prohibition

Bootlegging

General

Kansas City

Chicago

Mafia and “Good Killers” Gang

Modernization of Mafia

MAFIA SINCE END OF PROHIBITION

Gambling

General

Tampa, Florida

New York City

Detroit

Racing Wire News Service

Havana, Cuba

Miscellaneous

Narcotics

General

Kansas City Narcotics Operation

International Aspects of Drug Traffic

Recent Narcotics Arrests

Rackets

Laundry

Prostitution

Loan Sharking

Bootlegging

Garbage and Trash Cartage

Labour Unions

Legitimate Businesses

Liquor and Beverages

Race Tracks

Banking and Financing

Slot Machines

Garment Industry

Miscellaneous

I Gambino e gli Inzerillo

I Gambino e gli Inzerillo

ORGANIZATION AND LEADERSHIP OF MAFIA

Form

Important Meetings

General

Cleveland Meeting, 1928

Other significant Meetings, 1929-1957

Apalachin, New York, Meeting, 1957

General

Reasons for Meeting

Persons Present

Meeting Planned

Results of Uncovering Meeting

Other Means of Communication

Social Affairs

Telephone

Personal Contacts

Leaders

Selection and Exercise of Leadership

Some Mafia Leaders

Past Leaders

Current Leaders

International Ties

General

Contacts with Luciano in Italy

Deported Mafiosi

Family Ties Abroad

Havana Gambling Operations

MAFIA AND LAW ENFORCEMENT

ILLUSTRATIONS

Biography of a Mafioso – Russell Alfred Bufalino

Typical Intermarriages of Mafiosi

Meetings of Mafiosi in the U. S., 1928-1957

State or Country of Mafiosi Implicated in Meeting in Apalachin, N. Y., November 14, 1957

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Informazioni su Giuseppe Casarrubea

Giuseppe Casarrubea (1946 - 2015), ricercatore storico. E' stato impegnato per anni in studi archivistici riguardanti soprattutto i servizi segreti italiani e stranieri. Ha pubblicato i risultati delle sue indagini con le case editrici Sellerio e Flaccovio di Palermo, Franco Angeli e Bompiani di Milano.
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